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澳洲背包客各州租房相關須知 - Relevant Information on Tenancy for Backpackers in Australia ««« 查看完整圖文版


michelin
2009-02-25, 01:11
Hereinafter the tenancy information is categorized by Australian States, for current and prospective tenants who are searching for relevant authority, applicable forms, complaint lodgment, and other rental matters.


NSW 新南威爾
相關單位: Department of Commerce, Office of Fair Trading http://www.fairtrading.nsw.gov.au/Tenants_and_home_owners/Renting_a_home.html
總導: http://www.fairtrading.nsw.gov.au/Tenants_and_home_owners/Renting_a_home/Before_you_move_in.html
押金: http://www.fairtrading.nsw.gov.au/Tenants_and_home_owners/Renting_a_home/Bonds.html
分租資訊 http://www.fairtrading.nsw.gov.au/Tenants_and_home_owners/Renting_a_home/Sharing_a_rented_home.html
終止合約: http://www.fairtrading.nsw.gov.au/Tenants_and_home_owners/Renting_a_home/When_you_move_out.html
排解糾紛: http://www.fairtrading.nsw.gov.au/Tenants_and_home_owners/Renting_a_home/Resolving_renting_problems.html


NT 北領地
相關單位: Consumer Affairs http://www.nt.gov.au/justice/consaffairs/res_tenancies.shtml
總導: http://www.nt.gov.au/justice/consaffairs/documents/Residential%20tenancies/renting_guide_0408.pdf
押金: http://www.nt.gov.au/justice/consaffairs/documents/rt040101_sec_bonds_000.pdf
分租資訊: http://www.nt.gov.au/justice/consaffairs/documents/Share_Houses_000.pdf
提前終止合約: http://www.nt.gov.au/justice/consaffairs/documents/Breaking_a_lease_early.pdf
排解糾紛: http://www.nt.gov.au/justice/consaffairs/documents/rt020101_disputes_000.pdf


QLD 昆士蘭
相關單位: RTA (Residential Tenancies Authority) http://www.rta.qld.gov.au/
相關表格: http://www.rta.qld.gov.au/e_forms_for_tenants.cfm
押金: http://www.rta.qld.gov.au/rental_bonds_section.cfm
分租資訊: http://www.rta.qld.gov.au/share_houses.cfm
排解糾紛: http://www.rta.qld.gov.au/resolving_disputes_2.cfm


SA 南澳
相關單位: OCBA (Office of Consumer and Business Affairs) http://www.ocba.sa.gov.au/tenancies/
相關表格: http://www.ocba.sa.gov.au/tenancies/res/leaseagreements/index.html
押金: http://www.ocba.sa.gov.au/tenancies/res/bondrent/index.html
終止合約: http://www.ocba.sa.gov.au/tenancies/res/leasetermination/index.html
排解糾紛:http://www.ocba.sa.gov.au/tenancies/res/disputes/index.html
分租資訊: http://www.ocba.sa.gov.au/tenancies/rooming/index.html


VIC 維多利亞
相關單位: Consumer Affairs Victoria http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256EB5000644CE/page/Renting-Tenants?OpenDocument&1=910-Renting~&2=10-Tenants~&3=~
總導: http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256EB5000644CE/page/Renting-Tenants-Deciding+to+Rent?OpenDocument&1=910-Renting~&2=10-Tenants~&3=10-Deciding+to+Rent~
押金: http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256EB5000644CE/page/Renting-Tenants-Rental+Bonds?OpenDocument&1=910-Renting~&2=10-Tenants~&3=20-Rental+Bonds~
二房東資訊: http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256EB5000644CE/page/Renting-Tenants-Sharing+a+rental+property?OpenDocument&1=910-Renting~&2=10-Tenants~&3=07-Sharing+a+rental+property~
分租資訊: http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256EB5000644CE/page/Renting-Share+Houses?OpenDocument&1=910-Renting~&2=70-Share+Houses~&3=~
終止合約: http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256EB5000644CE/page/Renting-Tenants-Ending+a+Tenancy?OpenDocument&1=910-Renting~&2=10-Tenants~&3=70-Ending+a+Tenancy~
排解糾紛: http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256EB5000644CE/page/Renting-When+Things+Go+Wrong?OpenDocument&1=910-Renting~&2=80-When+Things+Go+Wrong~&3=~


WA 西澳
相關單位: Department of Commerce, Consumer Protection http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/ConsumerProtection/Content/Real_Estate/Renting_and_tenancy/Tenants/index.htm
總導: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/ConsumerProtection/Content/Real_Estate/Renting_and_tenancy/Tenants/Getting_started.html
押金: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/ConsumerProtection/Content/Real_Estate/Renting_and_tenancy/Tenants/Bonds_and_rent.html
終止合約: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/ConsumerProtection/Content/Real_Estate/Renting_and_tenancy/Tenants/Ending_a_tenancy.html
申訴表格: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/ConsumerProtection/PDF/Forms/CP_Complaint_Form.pdf


Termination 終止合約
One common area of dispute comes from the agreement on lease termination. Either Landlord or tenant giving notice to the other party for terminating a tenancy, such notice must be in writing. One typical good example on what must be included in a notice is from the Fair Trading of NSW:
1. be in writing
2. state the address of premises
3. be signed and dated
4. allow the required period of time
5. given all details/reasons for ending the agreement
6. include a statement about tenant’s rights and obligations in the agreement
7. can be posted or given personally (A notice cannot be stuck to/put under the door)

Notice period, in particular, is not quite straight-forward, as each State has slightly different rules. In general, a tenant cannot end a fixed term tenancy, only if there is a breach from the landlord. Here are some examples:

SA Both landlord and tenant cannot give notice of the intention to vacate prior to the final day of the term. However, tenant may give 7 days notice to the landlord if there is a breach of the agreement, to remedy the breach. Landlord, on the other hand, also may give 7 days notice if there is a breach by the tenant. For non-payment of rent, landlord cannot give notice to the tenant until the 15th day, and tenant has minimum of 7 days pay the rent owing (ie, total of 22 days).

VIC 28 days notice to Landlord, 14 days notice to Tenants. There are 60/90/120 days situation (refer to http://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256902000FE154/Lookup/CAV_Publications_Renting/$file/endingtenancy.pdf)

Even the notice to terminate Periodic Tenancy is not the same. Therefore readers should always refer to the relevant authority for correct information.
SA 21 days
NT 14 days to landlord; 42 days to tenant
WA 21 days


Shared Tenancy 分租
Other potential dispute arises from sharing a rented home. There are three general arrangements which are Head-tenant/Sub-tenant, Co-tenants, and Rooming House tenants.

All states require head-tenant to obtain permission from the landlord first, before sub-letting. Accordingly, any prospective sub-tenants must obtain a proof from the person (who is sub-letting a room to you), of which shows the landlord has agreed such arrangement. The worst scenario is the sub-tenant could be evicted by the landlord has no knowledge of the sub-letting.

Second arrangement is the co-tenancy, where every person who has signed the agreement shares the all the rights and responsibilities of the tenancy. Therefore, other co-tenant(s) is responsible for any damages and rent, when one of the tenants leaves owing money for rent or damages.

Rooming House Tenancy is another common type, which is usually seen as home-stay arrangement. It is recommended that a Rooming House Agreement to be drawn. A copy of the house rules is usually supplied, in which normally covers if the landlord wants you to pay for water supply, electricity, gas, telephone, meals, or other facilities or services. This notice must be given to the tenant by the landlord before the facilities or services are made available. In other words, the landlord cannot charge you for things that you were not told that you would be charged before you used them.

OCBA of SA has listed the rights and responsibilities of the rooming tenants and the landlord:
Tenant:
1. Pay the rent on time
2. Obey the house rules
3. Not use your room, or allow your room to be used, for any illegal purpose
4. Not keep any animals in your room, unless the landlord has agreed
5. Keep your room tidy enough so that there is no fire risk or health hazard
6. Tell the landlord if anything in your room is damaged or if any of your property gets damanged;
7. Allow the landlord to have reasonable access to your room.

Landlord
1. Not interfere with your quiet enjoyment of your room
2. Not restrict or interfere with your access to facilities at the rooming house
3. Allow you to have access to your room at all times
4. Allow you to have reasonable access to toilet and bathroom facilities
5. Maintain your room and any facilities that you share in a reasonable state of repair;
6. Repair defects, if aware of their existence.

Vic has even gone a step further by asking rooming house owner to provide prospective tenant, a Notice to Proposed Rooming House Resident, which explains the occupancy right when you are renting the room only exclusive to you, OR sharing the room with one or more persons.

Later on, the owner of rooming house can request an increase in room capacity, but the owner must get written consent from all the tenants already occupying the room. The form, Consent to Increase in Room Capacity, must have signatures of all current residents, AND reduction in rent.

The tenant does not have to give consent and you can call Rooming House Service (03)9411 1444, if the owner is pressuring you into giving your consent. Once the consent is given, the owner decides who will share your room and they don't have to inform you, before they put another person in your room.


Bond 押金
Retrieving the rental bond is often an issue for backpackers who usually in shared tenancy arrangement. Normal bond must be lodged with relevant authority, such as Office of Fair Trading in NSW, RTA in QLD, and then is locked in an interest bearing Trust until refund of the bond is requested.
Without formally lodging the bond with the authority, a shared tenant can only rely on negotiation with the head-tenant or landlord based on the signed written agreement. In other words, backpackers in shared tenancy arrangements have very little protection from the authority when a dispute over claiming the bond back is occurred.

It is all come down to the “private” written agreement signed initially in between the parties. The clearer or more details of the conditions on the rental bond (especially the pre-conditions on refund of the bond), the better chance of getting the full amount of the bond back.
Here are some considerations in relation to the bond before signing a written agreement:
1. The bond generally cannot be more than 4 weeks’ rent.
2. When there are more co-tenants sharing the accommodation, it is important that names of all parties appear on the agreement.
3. Photos should be taken around the room and facilities, especially on the already damaged/soiled property or goods, for proof against any unreasonable claims in the future.
4. A receipt or acknowledgment signature on the agreement which should include the date, name, and amount, must be obtained from the head-tenant or landlord.
5. The head-tenant or landlord cannot increase the bond during the lease.


Dispute Resolution 排解糾紛
In the event of dispute, the first step is to carefully read the terms of the tenancy agreement. Self-resolution, meaning resolving the dispute and finally reaching at an acceptable compromise in between both parties, is strongly recommended. Any agreement reached should be put in writing.

When both parties having trouble resolving the dispute, the tenant can seek the following authority first:
NSW Office of Fair Trading. Free advice. 13 32 20
NT Commissioner of Tenancies. 1800 019 319
QLD Dispute Resolution Service of RTA. 1300 366 311
SA Tenancies Branch of Office of Consumer and Business Affairs. (08) 8204 9544
VIC Consumer Affairs of Victoria. 1300 558 181
WA Department of Commerce, Consumer Protection 1300 30 40 54

You will be asked to provide the following documents:
1. Tenancy Agreement.
2. The Entry Condition Report.
3. Bond and rent receipts/records.
4. Invoice for any work carried out at the property, such as maintenance or cleaning.
5. The Exit Condition Report.

It is important that you get in a habit in keeping records of any communication you may have with the head-tenant or landlord. For example, make a written diary entry when you pay or receive rent or discuss a matter of importance such as repairs or maintenance. This will assist you greatly should a dispute arises.

---------------------

If the dispute is still unresolved, and you feel that it is paramount to win the case, as well as you have a lot of time to kill, and lots of money ready to get wasted, then you can try the applicable tribunal listed below:

NSW Tenancy Division of the Consumer, Trader and Tenancy Tribunal (CTTT). There are prescribed time limits for making applications to the Tribunal for certain orders. For example, in cases where an order is requested regarding broken terms of the tenancy agreement, this order should normally be sought within 30 days of becoming aware of the event.
QLD Small Claim Tribunal. http://www.rta.qld.gov.au/sct_2004.cfm
SA Tenancies Branch of OCBA. Apply for Residential Tenancies Tribunal hearing first.
VIC The Victorian Civil & Administrative Tribunal (VCAT).

No more advice will be provided here. It's obvious that your English ability is good enough if you managed to get this far. Good luck.


NB. Welcome to correct the above information if there is any omissions or errors.


Wish to thank Stephenchiu大 taking up his precious time to finish below immaculate translation work.

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謝謝michelin


stephenchiu
2009-02-27, 08:24
以上為米其林大大按照澳洲各州與相關權責單位分門別類,提供給那些目前或是未來正在尋找政府管理機構、申請表格、投訴、以及其它租賃相關事宜的房客,一份非常詳盡的租賃資訊,並已由版管納入置頂精華區,在此感謝米其林大大的無私奉獻。

就租賃相關事宜,將米其林大大的原文翻譯如下:

終止合約

常見的爭議往往出現在租賃合約的終止上,無論是由房東還是房客提出終止合約的通知,必須要是以書面的形式進行。以下是由新南維爾斯州當局提供的一個不錯的範本,點出了必須明列在此書面通知的項目:

1.必須書面化
2.載明租賃物業的地址
3.親筆簽名並押上日期
4.同意給予一定的搬離期間
5.載明終止合約的理由與細節
6.附上一份在此合約中關於房客權益與義務的聲明
7.必須經過郵寄或是親自交付給對方 (不能只是從門縫下塞進去)

通知期的規定在各州略有不同,一般而言,除非房客有違反租約上的事項,否則房客不能單方面結束定期租約。比如:

在南澳,房東與房客雙方都不能在要求搬離前一刻才發出通知,房客若有違約,房客可以有7天時間通知房東要求做補救或賠償。若房客不交房租,房東必須要15天後才能發出通知給房客,而房客亦有7天時間償付,因此,房客共有22天的寬限期。

在維多利亞州,對房東的規定是28天的提前期,對房客是14天的提前期,另外有一些情況是給與60/90/120天的提前期,請參照www.consumer.vic.gov.au/CA256902000FE154/Lookup/CAV_Publications_Renting/$file/endingtenancy.pdf

雖然終止合約通知的提前期各不相同,請各位讀者參考各州當局的網頁以更新資訊。
(南澳21天;北領地房東14天,房客42天;西澳21天)


分租

其它產生租賃爭議的起因發生在分租上。一般來說有三種約定情況:二房東與房客、合租、房間分租。

向二房東承租:
各州的規定中均需要二房東獲得房東的許可後才能轉租,因此若你打算向二房東承租之前,必須索取屋主同意二房東轉租的證明。目前很多糟糕的現象是那些被驅離的房客,對於分租的概念一無所知。

合租:
所謂合租,即是每一個合租人都被載明於租賃合約中,並共同簽署該合約。因此,每一個合租人必須共同承擔房租與損壞的責任。

房間分租:
常見於寄宿家庭這種形式,建議大家若選擇以寄宿家庭作為租賃的選擇時也要簽訂合約。通常會提供一份住戶守則與約定給你,其中,通常會涵括是否房東要你負擔水、電、瓦斯、電話費、餐飲或其他設施的費用。這份通知必須在房東提供這些設施之前給與給房客;換句話說,若房客沒有在被告知的前提下而使用了這些設施時,房東是不能要求房客支付這些費用的。

南澳的OCBA列舉了一些關於房間分租時,房東與房客之間的權利與義務:

房客:

1.準時付房租
2.遵守租房規定
3.不可使用所承租的房間,或讓他人使用作為非法用途
4.非經房東同意,不得在房間內飼養動物
5.保持房間的清潔以確保沒有火災或健康方面的隱患
6.若房間內遭受損壞或是你的個人物品在房間內遭受損壞,儘速告訴你的房東
7.允許房東在合理的情況下進入你的房間

房東:

1.不得干擾你的安寧
2.不得限制或干擾你使用房子的其它設施
3.允許你任何時間使用你自己的房間
4.讓你合理地使用廁所與浴室等設施
5.維修房客的房間及共用的設施
6.若發現任何損壞情況,房東要負責修復

而維多利亞州甚至更進一步,要求房東提供給打算承租的房客,說明與解釋你在承租期間的使用權利。若之後,房東想要增加其它房客的人數,房東必須取得所有已承租人的書面同意,包括所有現行承租人的簽名,並且減少房租。若你迫於房東的壓力要求你作出同意,你只要在房東打算把另一個安排住進你房間的人入住之前,你可以打電話(03)9411 1444給Rooming House Service表示異議。


押金

要求返還押金是一個經常被背包客討論的問題。通常來說,押金必須經由房東提交給相關單位保管,比如在NSW是Office of Fair Trading,在QLD是RTA,然後這筆款項會被交付信托直到被要求返還為止。因此,如果你所付的押金若未被正式地提交給有關當局保管的話,你只能基於雙方簽署的書面合約要求房東或二房東退還押金。換言之,一旦房客與房東之間產生了這方面爭議的話,房客受到有關當局方面的保障是非常渺小的。

若你的押金沒有被提交到有關當局的話,此押金是僅限於你與房東之間的合約上,是屬於一種民事契約,並非官方文件,沒有公家的約束力。所以,在合約上若在押金方面的條款寫得越詳細(特別是在退還押金的先決條件方面),那麼對於你能拿回全數的押金機會則越高。

以下是一些在你打算簽署租賃合約之前,關於押金方面的注意事項:

1.押金通常不會超過4週的房租
2.若有合租人,則必須列在合約上
3.若承租的房子或設施已有損壞,請拍照存證以避免日後房東無理的索賠
4.押金的收據或是在合約上押金收訖的欄位上,應該要列上金額、房東/二房東的簽名,並押上日期
5.在承租期間,房東或二房東不得任意提高押金



排解糾紛

一旦遇到租賃方面的爭議,第一步是小心仔細地閱讀合約上的條款。自行解決,就是指最終達到一個雙方均可接受的妥協方式,任何妥協後的決議,強烈建議其務必要書面化。

如果雙方在處理爭議與糾紛上無法得到有效的解決,房客可以尋求各州有關當局的協助,如下:

- NSW Office of Fair Trading. Free advice. 13 32 20
- NT Commissioner of Tenancies. 1800 019 319
- QLD Dispute Resolution Service of RTA. 1300 366 311
- SA Tenancies Branch of Office of Consumer and Business Affairs. (08) 8204 9544
- VIC Consumer Affairs of Victoria. 1300 558 181
- WA Department of Commerce, Consumer Protection 1300 30 40 54

請你必須提出以下的文件,以利管理當局的案件受理:
1.租賃合約
2.入住狀況的描述報告
3.押金與租金的收據或記錄
4.完成損壞部份的維修或清潔髒污後的發票
5.退住狀況的描述報告

因此,保留所有與房東/二房東之間的溝通記錄的習慣是非常重要的。比如,當你給付租金或者是與房東討論一些例如維修或保養之類等重要的事情,做一份日記帳,以後萬一引起糾紛時,這份記錄將會大有助益。

如果糾紛還是無法解決,而你認為你有絕對的勝算,也有很多時間可以耗下去的話,你可以試著去法庭提交民事調解的申請:

- 新南威爾斯 Tenancy Division of the Consumer, Trader and Tenancy Tribunal (CTTT). CTTT對於案件的申請有時限性,請特別留意。
- 昆士蘭 Small Claim Tribunal. http://www.rta.qld.gov.au/sct_2004.cfm
- 南澳 Tenancies Branch of OCBA. Apply for Residential Tenancies Tribunal hearing first.
- 維多利亞州 The Victorian Civil & Administrative Tribunal (VCAT).

若有任何錯誤或補充,歡迎指正。祝大家在澳洲都能成為快樂的房客

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sevenbrain
2011-02-20, 20:50
請問一下,租房子時如果沒有簽正式合同,而是有雙方簽名僅載明租期的收據,這具法律效益嗎?

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兔仔~
2011-08-02, 12:19
謝謝分享知識,又多學到一點了。


<好文章要幫推>

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vivi730603
2011-09-16, 14:01
謝謝分享知識,又多學到一點了。


<好文章要幫推>

謝謝分享知識~(F)

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jly880112
2012-02-25, 09:53
你好,謝謝你這麼專業的帖子,我有一個非常惱人的問題想諮詢一下。情況是這樣的:
我剛take了一個house,里面有三間bedroom,一間客廳,客廳是獨立有門的。仲介規定
每間bedroom只能住一個人,客廳不能住人,這些是仲介口頭跟我説的。也就是整個house只能住三個人。但是我想客廳住兩個,有一間大的房間住兩個。這樣的話一共六個人。合同上面沒有寫明整個house最多能住多少人,也沒有寫客廳不能住人,但是寫了是3個bedroom。如果仲介或者房東萬一發現房子里的實際情況,他們有權收回房子嗎?

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D.F.
2012-03-04, 01:29
十二萬分地感謝!!:-)~~~~~~~~

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澳洲背包客各州租房相關須知 - Relevant Information on Tenancy for Backpackers in Australia ««« 查看完整圖文版